Racial profiling research paper

The police arguments rest upon two separate but related features of police deployment.Operation Pipeline arose from police awareness that vehicle stops yielding large quantities of drugs shared certain characteristics.

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Free racial organ donation essay, and criminal justice policy.Though rare, such intrusions are insulated from sanction on two fronts.Engel, John Wooldredge Division of Criminal Justice, University of Cincinnati, P. O.If minority drivers were indeed more likely to have drugs than their white counterparts, a stronger argument might be made that the observed disparities were justified.It proposes citizens to take action against the officers if this is, in fact, what they are doing.

In the absence of those circumstances, however, a police officer may only request permission from the driver or owner to search the car for contraband.The most basic level occurs in the act of being selected for police inquiry about a law violation.The vehicles were northbound at high rates of speed, usually occupied by two black or Latino males in their late teens or early twenties.The consent search is integral to the racial profiling controversy.Essay Term Paper Attacks On The Insanity Defense Essay Term Paper.The second area involves the continuing refinement of methodology, and the factors to be considered when examining aggregate police data in vastly different locations for evidence of racial bias.For fingerprints, that identification is of a known individual matched to an unknown sample (the latent print).In the wake of the 1998 New Jersey Turnpike shooting, a fairly broad scholarly effort ensued to establish whether or not police engaged in racial profiling in other jurisdictions.

Though the Supreme Court has expanded police powers in the cases of Atwater v.Discrimination may be inferred from unequal numbers, but disparate treatment supports a stronger inference when persons of a minority class suffer a disproportionate burden than comparably situated majority citizens.It remains difficult to determine whether disparate patterns represent overt bias, subtle bias, or a statistical artifact of police deployment based on crime and call patterns, or other localized phenomena.Profiles arose from patterns of observable behavior, verified and sustained by convictions in courts of law.On September 11th, 2002, America was attacked like no other time it.According to this same report, African-Americans are much more likely to commit violent crimes than whites and when they commit these crimes, target whites slightly more than half the time.Further, the fact that the upper echelons of a gang or criminal enterprise are of a common racial or ethnic heritage does not generalize their criminality to all who share their skin color or ethnicity.

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Police assert that all adult citizens of the United States know that they have the right to decline to give such permission, and so all consent is voluntary.Racial profiling is a matter of considerable concern in the U.S., and mutatis mutandis in other countries.Stark, R. (1987). Deviant places: A theory of the ecology of crime.All content will be 100% original and there will be no plagiarism.

The public points to the Maryland and New Jersey statistics, standing firm in their belief that it is merely a modern continuation of racial prejudice, now dressed up with pseudoscientific prose.Police records systems generally record only the fact of a stop, not its context.Maryland State Police (2003), used the same analytical technique employed in the Soto case.

The Efficacy and Effect of Racial Profiling: A

Introduction Racial profiling is a disputed term, embodying either a pernicious police practice or an intelligent application of police investigative skills, depending upon ideological perspective.It is because these medical statistics illustrate that high blood pressure is more prevalent in black men than in any other demographic group.

The debate is defined at one pole by a belief that racial prejudice leads to disparate treatment of minority citizens.

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COLLEGE-PAPER.ORG Research Paper On Racial Profiling research paper on racial profiling Dissertation Research Ethics Cv Writing Service Us Plymouth.In that respect, the issue mirrors many other debates in American life and jurisprudence.A second component of the argument is essentially defensive, made by officers who work in districts heavily populated by minority groups.Scientific inquiry intended to confirm or refute the existence of bias has a wide range of methodological difficulties, and studies to date have produced mixed empirical evidence.One post-shooting study in New Jersey suggested that young minority males comprised a much greater proportion of drivers using excessive speed (Lange et al., 2005). It retroactively provided nominal support for the original profile, but remains untested against actual vehicle stop practices.

Essay: Research questions for Racial Profiling | Termpaper

Profiling compiles behavioral attributes linked to specific criminal activities, creating a rudimentary sketch of as-yet-unknown persons who might be more likely than others to commit the crime.The first is whether criminal propensity is more likely in one group than another, with a collateral question of what purported proofs should be considered valid.

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Racial Profiling Research Paper Popular presentations See more popular or the latest prezis Product Company Careers Support Community Contact Apps.When the issues of race and criminal activity are added to this, the emotional intensity increases to a boiling point.Because of these limitations, the most difficult task is determining whether any disparities are grounded in prejudice, or are a product of real (rather than presumed) criminal conduct.Some consider racial profiling a viable tool to reduce crime.A corollary argument points to the racially homogeneous character of high-level drug gangs—from Jamaican posses to MS-13, from the Nicky Barnes organization to the Crips and Bloods—as a valid rationale for the police to focus on ethnicity or race in directing their drug- and crime-suppression efforts.You enter your details and deadline and get a personal writer who works with you on a one-to-one personal level until you are happy with the finished product.This sample criminal justice research paper is published for educational and informational purposes only.If the police have probable cause that a crime is being committed in their presence—such as the smell of marijuana, or the existence of drugs, paraphernalia, or weapons in plain sight—they can arrest the occupants of a car and conduct a full search incidental to that arrest.

The historical antecedent most familiar to Americans is the internment of Japanese Americans after the attack on Pearl Harbor, while members of the German Bund (a pro- Nazi organization) in America remained free and largely unmolested.Dozens of studies have been conducted, yielding mixed results.

Because of these statistics, police are more prone to look for the type of person more apt to commit these crimes, and in these cases, based on the data, African-Americans are brought to the forefront.Studying racial profiling has several methodological hurdles.Disclaimer: Free essays on Criminology posted on this site were donated by anonymous users and are provided for informational use only.The impact of their actions upon the minority citizens will remain vivid, however, and the gap between what is experienced by citizens and what can be demonstrated statistically will remain a cause of friction.Their point—which is valid at the individual level—is that the vast majority of individuals with whom they have contact during the day are residents and visitors who are minorities.Even in those jurisdictions that have adopted more rigorous tracking by race and ethnicity, either prospectively or in response to consent decrees or public criticism, few forms reveal the actual motivation of the officer.

Vehicle interiors contained fast-food wrappers and pillows and blankets (both indicative of nonstop travel), and detergent or other strong-smelling substances to mask the odor of drugs.The bottom line is that when a traffic stop is made simply because the driver is a person of color and there is no other justifiable reason, civil rights have been violated and the individual has been the victim of discrimation.Free research papers, are not written by our writers, they are contributed by users, so we are not responsible for the content of this free sample paper.Shawnta Prather CJE 101-01 Research Paper October1, 2013 Racial Profiling and the Effects it has on Blacks in the Criminal Justice System.Most challenges to consent searches center on whether the consent was in fact voluntary, or was influenced by coercive police tactics or deception.The Turnpike shooting case revived scrutiny of New Jersey State Police practices that had languished since the 1996 case of State of New Jersey v.They are more likely to be pulled aside for more extensive inquiries at airport security checkpoints and other sensitive areas.Research has verified that people of color are more often stopped than whites.The argument is particularly acute in minority-populated areas, because minority-status victims are frequently the complainants in the cases police investigate: The police are incensed by accusations of racism when they are in fact defending the interests of law-abiding minority citizens.

Whatever the case, racial profiling of this sort is plainly and simply wrong.Venkatesh, S. A. (2006). Off the books: The underground economy of the urban poor.