Focus groups research methodology
This lack of empirical evidence suggests that advice offered with regard to sample size is, as a rule, based on common assumptions or personal experience with the method.We were interested in discovering whether there is more reason for optimism a decade later.
FOCUS GROUPS - Wilkinson - 1999 - Psychology of WomenIn our own experience with focus group research, recruitment problems are much more common than this review indicates.
Overview of qualitative research Entire books are written about qualitative research methods, and whole courses are dedicated to studying various characteristics...The Focus Group Interview and Other Kinds of Group Activities Why being clear about what is and what is not a focus group interview important.For instance, it was sometimes difficult to decide whether an explanation for number of focus groups had been given and what this explanation was.In NK Denzin and Y Lincoln (Eds.) Handbook of Qualitative Research.We excluded papers that described planned studies and papers that described internet-based focus groups as we assumed that recruiting participants for such groups possibly invokes other challenges than recruiting participants to face-to-face groups.
Focus groups in tropical diseases research. | POPLINE.orgFocus groups have been used since the 1940s, although recently they have been used in social and behavioral research.We could speculate that studies using only one focus group, a number that goes against the rules of thumb offered by these guidelines, is simply too hard to justify and explanations are therefore evaded.View Article Google Scholar Morse JM: Sampling in Grounded Theory.No explanation Practical reasons Recommended by literature Saturation Capacity to analyse data.We searched PubMed for studies that had used focus groups and that had been published in open access journals during 2008, and extracted data on the number of focus groups and on any explanation authors gave for this number.Focus group moderators should pose questions in a way that does not lead group members to provide desired responses, but rather honest and insightful responses.
When you bring a group of people together to talk about a brand, the tendency exists for influential group members to affect the expressions of others within the group.Frey, J.H. and Fontana, A. (1993) The Group Interview in Social Research. In D. Morgan (Ed.) Successful Focus Groups: Advancing the State of the Art.In JF Gubrium and JA Holstein (Ed.) Handbook of Qualitative Interviewing.Roughly half of the studies that referred to data saturation as an explanation for number of focus groups did not appear to be consistent in their use of approach.On the other hand, it could be argued that researchers who report that they have used focus groups should adhere to the methodological standards for such studies.Google Scholar Krueger RA: Quality control in focus group research.View Article PubMed PubMed Central Google Scholar Wild K, Boise L, Lundell J, Foucek A: Unobtrusive In-Home Monitoring of Cognitive and Physical Health: Reactions and Perceptions of Older Adults.Focus groups are a space for active participation and closeness to the research subject, but the participation depends on who you interview, the topic being discussed, if participants feel comfortable, and the creative means to elicit response.
Focus Groups: An Effective Marketing Research Tool for Social Service Agencies Lead Author: Susan Webster Contributors Lucky Hollander, Tony Scucci.We also found some examples of adequate reporting regarding point of saturation.Sixty-one percent had used mixed methods of data collection, while 39% had used focus groups only.
Focus Groups | Usability.govThis paper introduces and reviews the use of focus group methodology across the social sciences, identifying three different research traditions within which it has.Three of the 37 studies reported practical reasons for the number of focus groups conducted.
In identifying the types of creative methods employed within focus groups, we will see how using focus groups is more in keeping with feminist research methods, enabling participants to define the research context and interpretations of the topic they are discussing.None of the eleven single-group studies attempted to justify why one group was sufficient.However, the authors usually underline that these are only rules of thumb and that the number of focus groups depends on the complexity of the research question and the composition of the groups.Both authors independently extracted data from the first ten included studies using a standard form based on the variables we aimed at analysing.Within this literature, advice on how to decide on the number of groups to conduct is often meagre compared to advice on other aspects of the method.We decided to include all studies claiming to be focus group studies.
This is an Open Access article distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution License ( ), which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited.As noted, none of the studies that included more than 13 groups gave any explanations for sample size and the qualitative assessment showed that none of the studies referred to a high number of groups as a study limitation.Practical limitations might not be as acceptable, especially not explicit references to economic or resource limitations.The session will address the reasons why focus groups are used and what types of knowledge they can generate.Because of meagre and unclear reporting, it was also difficult to tell whether the studies that claimed to have decided on sample size through an iterative research process and point of saturation did, in fact, analyse their data after data collection had ended.
Focus Groups: A User's Guide - Actual Analysis
How clear and accessible information regarding sample size was in each study.Some of these studies refer to existing pragmatic guidelines to justify their numbers, although the two to five focus groups per category recommended in these guidelines sometimes appear to have become two to five groups in total in the studies.The consumers are brought together and led through discussions of important company and brand topics by a moderator.Among those stating that they had reached a point of saturation, several appeared not to have followed principles from grounded theory where data collection and analysis is an iterative process until saturation is reached.
"Use of Focus Groups in Survey Item Development" by Sylvia
Both authors read and rewrote the manuscript and have approved the final manuscript.Conclusions While researchers should always provide correct and detailed information about the methods used, our study shows poor and inconsistent reporting of focus group sample size.This methodology brief outlines a five-stage process for conducting focus groups and reporting on the results.With qualitative research, researchers seek more open and complete perspectives on the brand or product.
On the other hand, when authors had included only a small number of focus groups, they frequently described this as a limitation.At the same time, the fact that many journals publish only one or two focus group studies a year could also mean that the methodological competence among editors and reviewers to assess focus group studies is lacking.